Recently the Dutch state-owned national lottery (known as De Staatslotterij) has become the subject of a controversy. Apparently the lottery was tipped in advance that gaming authorities would visit the lottery in order to investigate possible manipulation of the lottery. Continue reading National lotteries?
The Dutch government has announced that foreigners who invest more than 1.25 million Euro in the Dutch economy, can obtain a residence permit. The Netherlands aren’t the first country to implement such rule. Some countries even offer citizenship rather than mere “residence permits” to wealthy investors.
Usually these countries allow investing as one of several conditions for naturalization. There are currently no countries which limit naturalization only to wealthy investors. But unfortunately this might change in the future.
According to The Nation a group of libertarians wants to buy Belle Isle from the City of Detroit for the price of one billion USD. The article is dated January 28, 2013, months before Detroit filled for bankruptcy, but nevertheless if there’s one city in the world which is in need of one billion dollars, it would be Detroit.
And this is where the good news ends. According to the article, the project’s initiator, Rodney Lockwood, desires to transform Belle Island into a city-state with 35,000 citizens. Only this citizens has to pay a 300,000 dollar citizenship fee, and this is a necessary condition. Curiously, this fee is not intended to raise the one billion dollar to buy the island (a quick calculation shows that 35,000 people paying 300,000 USD each, would generate 10.5 billion USD).
Besides the citizenship fee, Lockwood also has two further conditions: approval by a “citizenship board” (sounds more like an exclusive club than as a city), and the ability to use English. We highly recommend to read the article for yourself for more of these amazing details.
Fortunately, it’s very unlikely that the US federal government this small island to become de facto independent. But the next generation of Lockwoods might turn to Space settlements. It’s not hard to imagine how they will buy or lease a space habitat, and to sell citizenship to wealthy people.
Citizenship implies privileges, such as the right to vote and stand in elections, which non-citizens does not have. Besides political rights, many states offer their citizens special protection such as social security, or as in case of Germany, they do not extradite their citizens to other countries. If citizenship, and political rights in particular, is limited to the happy few, than such state becomes a de jure oligarchy.
In a space colony, where only a few persons can afford to pay citizenship fees, most inhabitants will be mere (permanent) residents, even if their family lives in the colony for generations. These non-residents could be expelled from the country, if “their” government should see fit, while they cannot appeal such decision.
The idea of a country, where only a minority of its residents are citizens might sound strange, but isn’t. In Dubai, only 17% of the population are UAE citizens. The status of permanent residents, whose families are living in a space colony for generations, resembles that of the metics in classical Athens. In ancient Athens, citizenship was very restrictive and only in extraordinary circumstances a foreigner could become an Athenian citizen.
With paying huge fees as the only way to become a naturalized citizen of a space colony, it will not be strange that those citizens will prefer a jus sanguinis rather a jus soli based nationality law. Under the former system only those born to citizen parents become citizens at birth, while the latter system confers citizenship to all people born within its territory.
It’s clear that such huge citizenship fees are incompatible with classical republican ideals. We of Republic of Lagrangia, believe that anyone who subscribes to the principles of a secular, liberal and humanist society and is willing to contribute to such society according to his or her own capacities, should be able to become citizens of the Republic we want to found in outer space.
Last weeks the Dutch city of Utrecht made national head lines because of a controversial decision to close so-called prostitution boats. Though prostitution is legal in the Netherlands, there is great concern about the fact that many prostitutes are victims of human traffickers. Ironically the problem has become worse after the legalisation of prostitution.
In order to combat the problem of forced prostitution, many Dutch cities are revoking the licenses of brothel owners they suspect of human trafficking. Consequently, many prostitutes are losing their work places, including those who have entered this job voluntarily. It’s important that the bad pimps and their criminal associates are prosecuted, but in the way things currently work, the voluntary prostitutes (and their clients) are victimized.
Since the sole brothel owner in Utrecht has lost its license, there are no brothels left in the city. Some of the prostitutes who has lost their work place, have come up with the plan to start a cooperative of prostitutes. This cooperative would take over the brothel and the prostitutes themselves would run it. In this way the prostitutes are no longer depended on the services of a pimp.
Several people involved in this issue (e.g. mayors, district attorneys, prostitutes themselves) are calling for a mandatory registration of prostitutes. Only those who voluntary enter this particular trade, can be registered. When a client seeks the services of a prostitute (s)he is obliged to ask for the prostitute’s registration card.
Considering that prostitution will not disappear any time soon, and will likely also exist in future space settlements, I would propose the following system:
1. It will be prohibited to buy sexual services, unless from a registered sex-worker;
2. All sex-workers have to be registered by the authorities;
3. In order to be registered as a sex-worker, a person must be:
a. at least 21 years of age
b. be a citizen or permanent resident
c. a member a sex-worker cooperative.
This system would prevent most abuse in the sex-industry, whilst respecting people who voluntarily enter this branch.
Th Dutch Postal Service (PostNL) has introduced a kind of post stamp: digital post stamps. In the Netherlands, people are sending fewer and fewer letters and so fewer people have post stamp in-house. So if you has to send a letter, you need to go a shop to buy an entire sheet of post stamps (the last time I have bought post stamps, has been five years ago or so). It’s not possible to buy single stamps.
However, PostNL has come with a solution. People can now download an app on their cell phone. With this app they can buy a code, instead of putting a stamp you write that code on your letter’s envelope. The code is scant at the post center and recognised as stamp. The code is made up of nine numbers and letters (which gives more than 10 billion combinations, so the chance to guess a valid code are nill).
For those who are able to read Dutch: http://nos.nl/artikel/509787-postzegel-niet-meer-nodig-met-app.html (If you cannot read Dutch, you can use Google Translate; although this wouldn’t give you a fully correct translation, however it’s mostly understandable).
My own country, the Netherlands, happens to be one of the few countries which do not allow private armed security guards on ships faring under Dutch flag. International law states that if a ship is in international waters the laws of its flag nation applies on board, in words such a ship is part of the flag nation’s territory.
A very big problem these days, are Somalian pirates who are threatening global shipping. Since a large portion of all cargo transit between (Western) Europe and Asia, goes through the Suez channel and subsequently come close to Somalia, this is an issue for almost every nation on Earth. It’s therefore not without reason that many nations has sent their navies to Somalia in order to combat the pirates. The Dutch navy is one of those.
Only the problem is that on the oceans there are huge distances between ships, commercial and navy. If a ship is attacked by pirates, it may take a few days before a navy vessel can come close enough to take action. Further there are far more commercial ships, and thus potential targets, than navy ships.
Since most Somalian pirates are operating in small groups and are relatively weakly armed, an effective remedy against pirates is to employ private armed security guards. Because these guard are on board of the ship they are protecting, this solution is much cheaper than relying on navy support. We, and many others, believe in a right of self-defense.
Of course, private armed security guards do not make navies unnecessary, they only help navies in combating piracy in international waters. That the Dutch government still refuses to allow them is something we do not understand. Fortunately a famous Dutch think tank on foreign relation and military policy, Clingendael Institute, has published a report urging the government to allow private security guards on Dutch ships.
You might ask why I address this point on this blog about space colonization. I do this because I strongly believe that when the humanization of space has become a reality, it will only be a matter of time, before space pirates will arise. In all societies there are criminals, Settlements in outer space will prove not be an exception. Some criminals will only operate within some space settlements, other law-breakers will try to exploit the advantages of outer space.
Virtually all space advocates agree on that the distances between space settlements will be large and that there be a lot of trade between space settlements. These two facts provide a perfect opportunity for space pirates. Since it may take weeks, even months, before the armed forces of any space nation may come to help, inter-settlement transport of both people and cargo is extremely vulnerable for criminal actions.